Senegambian Languages

The Senegambian or (reduced) Northern (West) Atlantic languages are a branch of Niger–Congo languages spoken primarily in southern MauritaniaSenegalGambiaGuinea-Bissau, and Guinea; the transhumant Fula, howewever, have spread with their language from Senegal across the western and central Sahel. The most populous unitary language is Wolof, the national language of Senegal, with four million native speakers and millions more second-language users. There are perhaps 13 million speakers of the various varieties of Fula, and over a million speakers of Serer.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senegambian_languages

Senegal (République du Sénégal)

Official Language: French (français)
Lingua Franca: Wolof

Badyara 1,850 in Senegal (2006). South central, all Badyara village. Alternate names: Badian, Badjara, Badjaranké, Bajara, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda
Bainouk-Gunyaamolo 6,220 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 32,520. North of Casamance River in triangle formed by Bignona, Tobor, and Niamone, north of Ziguinchor, across Casamance River. Niamone, Gunyaamolo area; Tobot, Gujaaxet area. Also in Gambia. Alternate names: Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Ñuñ. Dialects: Gujaaxet, Gunyamoolo. Dialects mutually intelligible. Similar to Kobiana and Kasanga of Guinea-Bissau. More closely related to the Tenda languages of eastern Senegal than to the neighboring Diola-Fogny and Balanta. Gunyuño in Guinea-Bissau is distinct. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun
Bainouk-Samik 1,850 (2006). Casamance River south side, mainly in Samik area, about 20 km east of Ziguinchor; scattered villages north and east of Samik. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun
Balanta-Ganja

(national)

82,800 (2006). Southwest corner, south of Casamance River, between Goudomp and Tanaff, and south. Alternate names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Fjaa, Fraase.  Dialects: Fganja (Ganja), Fjaalib (Blip). A separate language from Balanta-Kentohe in Guinea-Bissau.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja
Bandial 11,200 (2006), increasing. Between Casamance River north, the Kamobeul Bolôn west, Ziguinchor-Oussouye road south, and Brin-Nyassia road east, Affiniam, Badiate-Grand, Bandial, Brin, Enampor, Essil, Etama, Kamobeul, and Seleky villages; Affiniam village north of Casamance River. Alternate names: Banjaal, Eegima, Eegimaa. Dialects: Affiniam, Bandial, Elun (Hulon, Kuluunaay, Kujireray). Lexical similarity: 74% between Bandial and Affiniam dialects, 76% between Bandial and Elun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay
Bayot 16,100 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 18,790. Southwest of Ziguinchor, a cluster of villages grouped around Nyassia village. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. Alternate names: Baiot, Baiote, Bayotte.  Dialects: Essin. A dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 15%–18% with other Jola varieties (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot
Bedik 3,380 (2002 NTM). Southeast. Alternate names: Bande, Basari du Bandemba, Budik, Ménik, Tandanke, Tenda, Tendanke. Dialects: Similar to Oniyan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda
Crioulo, Upper Guinea 105,000 in Senegal (2007). Ziguinchor, Bignona, and Kolda. Alternate names: Kriulo, Portuguese Creole.  Dialects: Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based
Ejamat 2,230 in Senegal (2007 SIL). Extreme south, a handful of villages 5 to 7 km due south of Oussouye, including Kahem, Efok, Youtou. Alternate names: Ediamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat
French 20,000 in Senegal (2006). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French
Fulah macrolanguage. Population total all countries: 12,269,805.
Gusilay 15,400 (2006). Tionk Essil village, between Tendouck and Mlomp-North. Alternate names: Gusiilay, Gusilaay, Kusiilaay, Kusilay. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay
Hassaniyya

(national)

7,190 in Senegal (2006). Northwest corner. Alternate names: Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya, Klem El Bithan.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
Jalunga 10,000 in Senegal (2007 NTM), increasing. Southeast, intersection of Mali, Guinea, and Senegal borders. Alternate names: Dialonké, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonké, Yalunka, Yalunke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka
Jola-Fonyi

(national)

340,000 in Senegal. Less than 10% are monolingual. 242,950 Fonyi, 96,660 Buluf. Population total all countries: 413,490. Casamance River south, strip just north of Senegal-Gambia border north, west by Diouloulou-Marigot tributary, east by Soungrougrou River, Bignona area; east and southeast of Ziguinchor. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. Alternate names: Diola-Fogny, Dyola, Jola-Fogny, Jóola-Fóoñi, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak kati Fóoñi, Yola. Dialects: Buluf, Fonyi, Kombo, Kalounaye, Narang. Gusilay, Kuwaataay, Karon, Mlomp, Kerak, Ejamat, and Bayot are more distantly related to Fonyi, but they are close geographically. Jola-Fonyi is the largest and most widely understood Jola variety. Lexical similarity: 68% with Jola-Kasa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi
Jola-Kasa 45,100 in Senegal (2007), increasing. Oussouye area, north to Casamance River, bounded by Kamobeul Bolôn tributary east, Kachiouane Bolôn west; Hitou and Niamoun villages north of Casamance River. Also in Gambia. Alternate names: Bacuki, Casa, Diola-Kasa, Jóola-Kaasa, Jóola-Kasa. Dialects: Ayun, Esulalu (Esuulaalur, Oussouye, Mlomp South), Fluvial, Huluf, Selek, Bliss (Niomoun). Similar to Jola-Fonyi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Kasa
Karon 9,000 in Senegal (2007), increasing. Population total all countries: 15,000. Southwest coast, north from Bliss Island (Casamance River) to The Gambia border, and east to Dioloulou, Kafountine area. Also in Gambia. Alternate names: Jola-Karone, Kaloon, Karone. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Mlomp, the most similar (Jola) language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp
Kerak 13,200 (2006). Extreme southwest corner before Guinea-Bissau border, Kabrousse village. Possibly other villages. Alternate names: Her, Keerak, Keeraku. Dialects: Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: between Kerak and Ejamat estimated 70% by early survey work. More recent estimates put it closer to 90%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat
Kobiana 400 in Senegal (2006). Alternate names: Buy, Cobiana, Uboi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun
Kuwaataay 6,210 (2006). Diembering, Bouyouye, Nyikine, Boukot-Diola; coastal villages just south of Casamance River mouth; Dakar. Alternate names: Kwatay. Dialects: Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: 40% with most similar Jola language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Kwatay
Laalaa 12,000 (2007). West central, north of Thies, Pambal area, Mbaraglov, Dougnan; Tambacounda area. Alternate names: Lala, Serer. Dialects: 52% intelligibility with Noon. Lexical similarity: 84% with Noon, 74% with Saafi-Saafi, 68% with Ndut and Palor, 22% with Serer-Sine.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin
Mandinka

(national)

669,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 1,346,000. Southeast and south central. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. Alternate names: Mande, Manding, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque, Socé. Dialects: Mandinka, Eastern Maninkakan, and Western Maninkakan are separate languages. Lexical similarity: 79% with Kalanke, 75% with Jahanka, 70% with Xaasongaxango, 59% with Western Maninkakan, 53% with Eastern Maninkakan, 48% with Bambara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West
Mandjak

(national)

105,000 in Senegal (2006). Southwest. Alternate names: Kanyop, Majak, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjak, Manjaku, Ndjak. Dialects: Bok (Kabok, Sara, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund, Yu (Pecixe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel
Maninkakan, Western 422,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 525,300. East. Also in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali. Alternate names: Malinka, Malinke, Maninga, Maninka-Western, Western Malinke. Dialects: Jahanka (Jahanque, Jahonque, Diakkanke, Diakhanke, Kyakanke). Trace their origins to Soninke, but now speak a dialect of Malinke in Senegal (Western Maninkakan). Vocabulary and grammar differences with Mandinka. Lexical similarity: 59% with Mandinka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West
Mankanya

(national)

29,200 in Senegal (2006), increasing. South-west, mostly in the Casamance, scattered. Alternate names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankanha, Mankaañ, Uhula. Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel
Mlomp 5,400 (2006). North of Casamance River, Mlomp village, 25 km east of Bignona, Tendouck to Tiobon road, Bignona Department, several surrounding villages, and scattered. Alternate names: Gulompaay, Mlomp North. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Karon (most similar), 42% with the most similar other Jola language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp
Ndut 38,600 (2007). West central, northwest of Thiès. Alternate names: Ndoute. Dialects: 32% intelligibility with Palor. Lexical similarity: 84% with Palor, 68% with Saafi-Saafi, Noon, and Lehar, 22% with Serer-Sine. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin
N’ko Classification: Mixed language
Noon

(national)

32,900 (2007). Thiès area. Alternate names: Non, None, Serer, Serer-Noon. Dialects: Padee, Cangin, Saawii. Noon is very different from Serer-Sine. 68% intelligibility with Lehar. Lexical similarity: 84% with Lehar, 74% with Safen, 68% with Ndut and Palor, 22% with Serer-Sine.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin
Oniyan 13,300 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 22,510. Southeast, Upper Casamance, Edun area; border areas, Kedougou, Tambacounda. Also in Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau. Alternate names: Ayan, Basari, Bassari, Biyan, Onëyan, Onian, Tenda Basari, Wo. Dialects: Northern Oniyan. Closely related to Bedik. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda
Palor 10,700 (2007), decreasing. West central, west southwest of Thiès. Alternate names: Falor, Palar, Serer, Siili, Siili-Mantine, Siili-Siili, Waro. Dialects: Kajor, Ba’ol. 55% intelligibility with Ndut, 27% with Saafi-Saafi. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ndut, 74% with Saafi-Saafi, 68% with Noon and Lehar, 22% with Serer-Sine. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin
Pulaar

(national)

2,740,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 3,691,000. Fulbe Jeeri and Toucouleur primarily in Senegal River Valley and Mauritania; Fulacunda in Upper Casamance region, west of Kolda to Gambia River headwaters east, from Senegal south border to Gambian border north. Also in Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania. Alternate names: Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Toucouleur (Tukolor, Tukulor, Tokilor, Pulaar, Haalpulaar, Fulbe Jeeri), Fulacunda (Fulakunda, Fulkunda). Fulbe Jeeri and Toucouleur (Haalpulaar’en) are separate ethnic groups. Jeeri is a geographical region in which a large number of diverse lineages still follow a seminomadic life. 3 families are subdivided into at least 20 lineages, each of which has dialect differences; all are inherently intelligible. Bunndu is a Fula geopolitical state composed of a mix of Toucouleur and Fulbe Jeeri. Fuuta Tooro (Fouta Toro) was a major Toucouleur geopolitical state, which has its seat in northern Senegal, and is also in Mauritania. Fulacunda is an ethnic group whose region is called Fuladu in the Upper Casamance area of Senegal. Different enough from Pular to need separate literature. Related to Maasina Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Western
Pular 150,000 in Senegal (2006). Alternate names: Fouta Dyalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central
Saafi-Saafi 114,000 (2007), increasing. Triangle southwest of and near Thiès (between Diamniadio, Popenguine, and Thiès). 60 villages: 43 are over 80% Saafi, 8 are under 50%. Alternate names: Saafi, Safen, Safi, Safi-Safi, Sereer Saafen, Serer-Safen, Serere-Saafen. Dialects: Boukhou, Sebikotane, Sindia, Hasab, Diobass. Dialects are named after villages and a zone (Diobass). Lexical similarity: 74% with Noon, Lehar, and Palor; 68% with Ndut; 22% with Serer-Sine. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin
Serer-Sine

(national)

1,130,000 in Senegal. Population total all countries: 1,161,900. West central; Sine and Saloum River valleys. Also in Gambia. Alternate names: Seereer, Seex, Sereer, Serer, Serer-Sin, Sérère-Sine, Serrer, Sine-Saloum, Sine-Sine. Dialects: Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Sine, Dyegueme (Gyegem), Niominka. The Niominka and Serere-Sine dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer
Soninke

(national)

250,000 in Senegal (2007 LeClerc). North and south of Bakel along Senegal River. Bakel, Ouaoundé, Moudéri, and Yaféra are principal towns. Alternate names: Marka, Maraka, Sarahole, Sarakole, Sarangkolle, Sarawule, Serahule, Serahuli, Silabe, Toubakai, Walpre. Dialects: Azer (Adjer, Aser), Gadyaga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke
Wamey 18,400 in Senegal (2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 23,670. Southeast and central along Guinea border, pockets, usually beside Pulaar. Also in Guinea. Alternate names: Conhague, Coniagui, Koniagui, Konyagi, Wamei. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda
Wolof

(national)

3,930,000 in Senegal (2006). Population total all countries: 3,976,500. West and central, Senegal River left bank to Cape Vert. Also in France, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania. Alternate names: Ouolof, Volof, Walaf, Waro-Waro, Yallof. Dialects: Baol, Cayor, Dyolof (Djolof, Jolof), Lebou (Lebu), Jander. Different from Wolof of Gambia. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Wolof
Xasonga 9,010 in Senegal (2006). Alternate names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Xaasonga, Xaasongaxango, Xasonke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West

See also: Languages of Senegal – Wikipedia

Source: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=SN

Languages of Senegal and The Gambia

Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/.

The Gambia (Republic of The Gambia)

Official Language: English (British)
Lingua Franca: Mandinka (Wolof in Banjul)

English 1,000 in Gambia (2004). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English
Jola-Fonyi 67,000 in Gambia (2006). districts southwest. Alternate names: Diola-Fogny, Jola, Jola-Fogny, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak Kati Fooñi, Yola. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi
Karon 6,000 in Gambia (2007 SIL), increasing. None are monolingual. Ethnic population: 60,000. Western Division south coastal area, from Senegal border north as far as Brikam. Alternate names: Karone, Karoninka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp
Mandinka

(national)

510,000 in Gambia (2006). West. Alternate names: Mandé, Manding, Mandingo, Mandinque, Socé.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West
Mandjak 26,300 in Gambia (2006). West, south of Gambia River. Alternate names: Kanyop, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjacu, Manjiak, Ndyak.  Dialects: Bok (Babok), Sarar, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaamo, Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund, Yu (Pecixe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel
Maninkakan, Western 3,300 in Gambia (2006). East. Alternate names: Malinka, Malinke, Northwestern Maninka.  Dialects: Jahanka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West
N’ko Classification: Mixed language
Pulaar 295,000 in Gambia (2006). Alternate names: Fulani, Fulbe Jeeri, Fulfulde-Pulaar, Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde.  Dialects: Fulacunda (Fulakunda, Fulkunda), Toucouleur (Tukolor, Tukulor, Halpulaar, Haalpulaar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Western
Serer-Sine 31,900 in Gambia (2006). Northwest. Alternate names: Seereer, Serer, Serer-Sin, Serrer, Sine-Saloum.  Dialects: Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Sine, Dyegueme (Gyegem). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer
Soninke 156,000 in Gambia (2006). Southeast corner. Alternate names: Aswanik, Gadyaga, Maraka, Marka, Sarahole, Sarahuli, Sarawule, Silabe, Toubakai, Wakore. Dialects: Azer (Adjer, Aser). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke
Wolof, Gambian 185,000 (2006). Western Division, Gambia River south bank, and central. Wolof of Senegal on north bank. Dialects: Senegal Wolof intelligible with Gambia Wolof but with significant enough differences to require adaptation of materials. Needs further investigation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Wolof

See also: Languages of The Gambia – Wikipedia

Source: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GM

The Gambia and Southern Senegal Language Map

Mande Language Family Map – Click to Enlarge

• Glossary of Islamic Terms (Arabic is not spoken as a language as such but many terms are borrowed from Quranic/classical Arabic in the predominantly Muslim Senegambia and are not only used in religious contexts but also in everyday speech even by non-Muslims. Most Arabic is Wolofized unless spoken by someone specifically educated in Arabic.)

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